AGV Intelligent Warehouse Robot Structure Optimization Design

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With the rapid development of China’s e-commerce, the demand of e-commerce logistics has increased significantly. The traditional warehousing and logistics industry human resources are difficult to meet the workload needs. Enterprises gradually use AGV intelligent robot to complete the warehousing and logistics tasks. Based on this, this paper first analyzes the development status of AGV intelligent robot, recognizes the development prospect of AGV, and further proposes the optimization design of AGV intelligent storage robot structure. By strengthening the optimization of each system, the robot performance is significantly improved, so that the robot can meet the needs of enterprise operation.

0. Introduction

In the logistics and storage industry, the application of AGV intelligent robot has changed the situation of manual sorting and storage, and effectively improved the efficiency and speed of goods storage. In order to further improve social productivity, it is also necessary to strengthen the design of intelligent robots, constantly optimize the structure of intelligent robots, improve their performance, and meet the production needs of various industries. Therefore, it is important to study the structure optimization of intelligent robot, which can effectively improve the performance of robot and make the robot motion performance meet the needs of production.

1.The development of AGV intelligent storage robot

AGV intelligent storage robot is evolved from automobile and intelligent technology. Beret electric company of the United States developed the first AGV car in the world in the 1950s and officially put into operation in 1954. Up to now,

Abroad AGV technology is mainly simple AGV technology and automatic AGV technology. In recent years, AGV technology has been widely used in China's logistics and transportation industry. Shenyang Xinsong, Beijing lifting machinery research institute and other enterprises have gradually developed AGV car, which has promoted the intelligent development of AGV car. The rapid development of e-commerce in China has opened up the application field of AGV car. AGV intelligent storage robot has been developed and widely used. Nowadays, the intelligent level of AGV intelligent robot in China is gradually upgraded, and the localization level of core equipment is gradually improved. The application of AGV intelligent robot also effectively improves the operation efficiency of China's logistics industry. However, AGV robot needs to be further improved, developed more mature and advanced products, and promoted the comprehensive development of all walks of life.

2.AGV application field and development prospect

AGV system can work continuously and meet various application functions. AGV application field system is widely used in pharmaceutical industry and has achieved good results. Nowadays, AGV application system has been widely used in storage industry, manufacturing industry, food industry, tobacco industry, pharmaceutical industry and other fields. The aging degree of our country is gradually increasing, the labor cost is gradually rising, which promotes the upgrading of industrial structure, coupled with the influence of working environment and other factors, causes the problem of labor shortage more and more serious. The appearance of AGV car can significantly improve this situation. The technology of computer, electronics, sensors, etc. can be well applied in various fields. In the future, it is necessary to further expand the application field of AGV system, go deep into the field of elderly care and high-risk occupation, use the advantages of intelligent robots to improve social production efficiency and meet the needs of economic development. For example, in the warehousing and logistics industry, AC and V cars can be flexibly transported in each site, significantly reducing the waste of human resources, saving warehouse space and reducing the economic cost of enterprises. At the same time, AGV robot operation is more safe, reducing occupational hazards, with many advantages, AGV robot will be more widely used, significantly improving the speed of economic development and safety of the industry.

3. The design of lifting rotating plate mechanism system

Lifting mechanism components include encoder, electric cylinder, brake and lifting motor. The lifting motor drives the ball screw to change the horizontal movement into the vertical upward movement. The upper part of the electric cylinder contacts with the supporting plate, and the lower part of the electric cylinder is fixed to the frame. The motor can't carry 1000kg shelf for stable operation. It is necessary to use the brake mechanism to lift the shelf in the electric cylinder, brake the brake, keep the shelf in the lifted state, and ensure the shelf shuttle in the warehouse, AC, V storage robot has two electric cylinders, one is 500kg load, lifting height reaches 30mm and () mm, two motors are used to drive lifting, and you have linear guide rail to ensure normal vertical lifting of the pallet. In general, the load capacity of the storage robot is 5kg, and the storage robot can automatically locate the cargo delivery exit. The rotating disk uses the tipping bucket type, which can dump the goods in the designated position at any time. In the loading device, the screw rod is connected with the motor and drives the rotation of the screw rod at the same time. The rotation of the screw rod can make the slide block rotate laterally, and make the hinge between the slide block and the tray connect. The slide block moves laterally, so that the tray can rise and fall. The motor can control the lifting of the tray, and the objects on the tray are transferred to the corresponding place.

4.Design of four wheel drive system

Generally, the drive steering system includes single drive, double drive, multi drive and differential drive centralized mode. The differential drive mainly uses two driving wheels, which can adjust the speed of the driving wheel and realize the turning function. It can turn the right angle at any time and has the flexible movement ability. The four-wheel drive system is more stable when moving and turning. As the most important unit of AGV, drive system directly affects the performance of AGV. This design adopts four-wheel drive system, each drive motor has an encoder, records the rotation pulse, and forms a drive control closed-loop. The wheel and motor shaft are connected by rigid key, and the drive housing and motor shaft are connected by deep groove ball bearing. The steering drive enables the car to move forward and backward by adjusting the steering wheel and speed. When the four driving wheels keep the same direction and speed, AGV can move in a straight line. Two of the driving wheels have different directions and speeds. AGV can move in an arc or rotate in place. The driving components include bearings, nylon wheels, flange plates, etc. the wheel material determines the bearing performance. The inner hub and nylon wheel are fixed with screws, and there is no slip. The suspension component shall ensure that the wheels of six wheel structure touch the ground at the same time, and the driving component and the main frame shall be connected by springs to ensure that the vehicle body is evenly stressed and distributed to four universal wheels. This structure ensures the driving force of AGV and improves the stability during turning.

5. Design of 360 ° omnidirectional induction anti-collision system

360 ° anti-collision system adopts high-precision sensors, which can detect moving equipment, turn events into signals, and send data to the control system, so as to quickly shut down the system or stop in case of failure. AGV is designed with secondary protection function, 360 before and after use. Protect the sensor to prevent the nearby facilities. The anti-collision system includes mechanical support, rubber, spring and other facilities. Once the car collides, the spring will be squeezed, the switch will be quickly linked, the whole life will be forced to end and normal operation will be set on the car. When the AGV is in normal operation, the green light will be on normally, the car will be hit, the task will be terminated accidentally, and the red light will be on. As the most important part of the storage robot, the anti-collision system should always ensure the safety of on-site personnel and vehicles. The storage robot uses sensors to identify nearby obstacles. In the forward or backward movement, it can identify obstacles in time to avoid collision. The storage robot is also equipped with an emergency stop switch. In an emergency, the staff can press the emergency stop switch to stop the operation. The design of anti-collision system can ensure that there is no collision between robots and workers, and regulate the occurrence of accidents.

6.visual system design

The vision system of storage robot is also very important. AGV often uses RFID technology to locate. Because RFID technology has a fast reading and recognition speed, but the reading distance is short, and the robot runs relatively fast. The party robot runs to a specific position, reads the tag, and cannot stop at the designated position. Only using RFID technology can not accurately locate, because the robot can only turn at right angles, and the running speed is relatively fast, this design uses the visual navigation technology with higher sensitivity, according to the code mark positioning, with the help of visual navigation positioning. The camera is installed in the front of the robot. The camera can collect the road information in front of the robot, and master the coding signs in advance during the action, so that the robot can advance

Deceleration and recognition can ensure the accuracy of the position. The vision system consists of a camera and a processor. The camera is responsible for taking the road image. After processing, it changes into positioning information and sends the information to the upper computer. The processor has flexible image processing ability and can meet the real-time requirements of navigation. Using AI single module supercomputers, embedded in robots, can provide advanced computing capabilities. Computer support software library can be used in many scenarios with high data density and high parallelism, and good application results are achieved. Vision system has a direct impact on the stability and accuracy of robot operation, and optimization of vision system can lay a good foundation for robot accurate operation.


In conclusion, through the analysis of the development status of AGV intelligent storage robot, it is recognized that AGV has a wide range of application fields and development prospects. In the logistics and storage industry, it is necessary to constantly optimize the structure design of AGV robot, improve its application performance, constantly improve the design of lifting rotating disk mechanism system, four-wheel drive system, 360 ° omni-directional induction anti-collision system and visual system to meet the needs of social production.


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Fu Yanan, Li Chaomin. On the application and improvement of intelligent warehouse robot in the perspective of logistics, 2018 (23). 77-78


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